Studies&Articles

INTRODUCTION :
Many studies have been conducted during time regarding influence of speed glue ,water glue and water glue or adhesive foils with boosters ,etc on ball speed and spin .The results are many times contradictory without any reasonable explanation .
This happened because nobody considered the glue as an active interface with specific physical characteristics: elasticity-modulus ,density ,weight and thickness .
These characteristics has to be evaluated by comparison and influence of these mechanical characteristics of the remaining dried layer of glue-active interface on final results of the ball speed and spin must be carried on (on rolling).
Racket has to be considered a complex dynamic system formed by three parts: wooden blade,layer of glue film and rubbers .
We present some studies of interest with links for access to complete form.

All studies are focused on the influence of pretensioning the rubber (factory tuning or after market tuning -speed glue or boosters) on speed,spin and trajectory of the ball .
None of them considered the influence of glue film layer (thickness,uniformity,elasticity ) on final behavior of ball trajectory,speed and spin .
STUDIES & ARTICLES:

Facts about speed glue
By Georg Nicklas, Thomas Kraus ,Konrad Tiefenbacher ( http://tensor.de/files/facts_about_speedglue.pdf )

Diagram (1) shows spin and speed in relation to the respective number of speed
glue applications. It can be seen that both the speed and particularly the spin
increase until the third gluing procedure, stay more or less the same with the fourth,
and then decrease.
These findings are in line with the professionals’ speed gluing experience.
They make several applications using a large quantity of speed glue before playing
for the first time. They then use only moderate quantities of glue and change the
rubber after only a few training sessions. In this way they maintain the rubber at
its peak during the brief period of use.

Title: All About Speed Glue
Authors: Waqidi Falicoff and Harald Sandner
Link: http://www.tomveatch.com/tt/speed.glue.patent.text.html
Quote: Although Speed Glues are used by hundreds of thousands of table tennis players throughout the world, there currently appears to be no coherent theory that adequately explains the phenomenon. Falicoff’s Study and Development of a Non-Toxic Glue and Equivalent Table Tennis Rubber Sheet, United States Olympic Grant paper, #S93-018-A-TT (1993), discussed the effect that solvent doping of table tennis sponge has on its dynamic storage, loss modulus and tan delta values. A number of DMA tests were carried out at low frequencies (up to 100 Hz) comparing sponge doped with trichloroethylene and regular sponge. Falicoff found that solvent-doped sponge has higher dynamic storage modulus (up to 30% higher), lower loss modulus and tan delta values than its non-doped version over the frequencies studied. However, no theory as to why this phenomenon occurs was presented. Other papers concerning the effect that Speed Glue has on table tennis rubber have been published by the ITTF. However, these scientific papers have not postulated a theory as to why the solvents perform such a function.

Title: History of Speed Glue
Author: Jens Felke
Link: http://208.106.217.153/magazine/09mar-apr/Felke-glue.pdf
Quote: “As if by magic – It was not just the players’ forehand topspin, but the entire sport of table tennis which rapidly began to take great strides forwards.”
– “The ball was more effectively surrounded by the rubber, and so it was easier to return it with spin after your opponent had hit it, rather than just blocking it,” says Stellan Bengtsson, world singles champion in 1971, who worked as professional coach for a variety of national teams and clubs after ending his playing career.”
– “The topspin players quickly learnt to close the racket angle (?) a bit more and to hit the ball before it reached the highest point of the arc. They no longer needed to reach out (?) so far and were able to start the forehand topspin at hip level. Now you could hit the ball more or less straight on, and not so much from below to above like you did before. And you got lots of power into the shot with far smaller movements.”
“But there were problems. The rubbers with integrated speedglue effect were not quite as fast, nor did they generate as much spin as speedglued rubbers. According to ESN’s own calculations, the models in the 2004 range produced two per cent less speed and five per cent less spin. A modest difference, once might think, but one that would be keenly felt by the players. This can be illustrated by comparison with the hundred meters race: one sprinter might run it in 10.0 seconds, another in 10.3 seconds. The difference is “only” three per cent, but when it comes to passing the finishing post, it still means humiliation for the loser. And so such progress – the greatest innovation in rubbers since MarkV and Sriver appeared on the market in the 60s – did not signify any breakthrough for the top- ranking players. They carried on gluing in order to remain in competition with the best.”

Title : Table Tennis is Going Green
Author Jens Felke
Link :http://208.106.217.153/magazine/09mar-apr/Felke-glue.pdf
Quote:”It was as if I’d won the jackpot.This is how Hungarian player Tibor Klampar recalls the moment when,through sheer chance, he discovered the phenomenon of speedglue, thereby changing the sport for ever, from one moment to the next “.

 

Title: Influence of Glue on Ball Speed
Authors :Tsuji Yutaka, Ushiyama Yukihiko, Kimura Koji
Link: www.ittf.com/ittf_science/…/23-tsuji_infuence%20of.pdf
Quote:The purpose of the present study is to clarify the difference in ball speed due to different glue. Many players, particularly offensive players, prefer the speed glue.

Title: The Missing Link
Author: Jens Fellke
Link: http://www.ittf.com/World_Events/YOG2010/Fsp_low.pdf
Quote:” POWER – Energy transfered through an elastic sponge and top sheet.The duration of the time when ball meets sponge in play is almost 1/1000 second, and the spin is up to 10,000 rotations/minute. It is estimated that 90 percent of the energy created, reacts when impact is made with the ball.
Impressive chinese knowledge :
Mr Dr Nicklas is convinced that the cooperation between player and coach and equipment is much more developed in China than in the rest of the world.
– The Chinese do not use the two rubber strategy by random. Of course they have a deep knowledge about the functions and advantages of two different rubbers. And I am sure they have very elaborated answers on questions like: What is the connection between rubbers and playing strategy? What are the consequences for the players?
– It is a lot of discussions about boostring and cheating at the moment. I am convinced that this is wrong focus. The best way of challenging China is to become as skillful as they in the developing the close linked triangle between players, coaches and equipment.
– The rest of the world must be as creative as the Chinese when it comes to equipment. We need to restore the missing link.”

The Impact of the Table Tennis Ball on the Racket(Backside Coverings) Konrad Tiefenbacher , Alain Durey
http://www.ittf.com/ittf_science/SSCenter/docs/199408014%20-%20%20Tiefenbacher%20-%20Impact.pdf.
“The impact between table tennis ball and the racket is a very important physical process in table tennis,because is the only process where the palyer influences the ball.The continual development of the racket has pushed the continual development of the tt-sport abd vice-versa .It was recognized that besides the speed the rotation of the ball could play an important part in tt-sport.”

Equipment, Bats and Rubbers

Author : Rowden Fullen
“Rubbers – To access the best rubber for your particular style of play is a monumental task. There are over 1000 differing rubbers and if you consider all the sponge thicknesses probably around 4000 or more variations.”

Link:http://protabletennis.net/book/export/html/17- excelent site containing more than 300 documented studies and articles about table tennis .

A Study of Materials and Mechanical Interaction with the Ball

Table tennis:A Brief Overview of Biomechanical Aspects of the Game for Coaches and Players

Link :http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/kinrec/research/media/table_tennis.pdf

Authors:Marion Alexander, PHD,Adrian Honish, MSC,Sport Biomechanics Laboratory,Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba
Quote:”The overall development of the sport of table tennis is evident throughout its history. However, the game itself has not changed in essence since its early days. Although it is faster, more subtle and more demanding than it was in previous decades, it has always been the concern of the ITTF to ensure that table tennis remains a contest of human skills and not that of the technology surrounding advances in equipment.Thus, equipment specifications have been carefully described in detail and enforced by the ITTF (Robbins, 2004). Future development of competitors must therefore be focused on their individual physical abilities and advancements in the biomechanics of the game itself.”

Table tennis Robots , Research and Science

Link : http://tiktuk.net/table-tennis-robots/

Many exceptional studies and scientific models are described in different links in the attempt to have a functional instrument to characterise better table tennis.

Influence of Adhesives and Gluing on Table Tennis Games
Author:Bojan Ropoša
University of Ljubljana,
Faculty of Sports, 2010
Sport Training, Table Tennis

Link (must be translated): http://www.fsp.uni-lj.si/COBISS/Diplome/Diploma22058360RoposaBojan.pdf
“Table tennis adhesives and gluing of table tennis linings have been monitored for many years by the professional table tennis as well as by the recreative table tennis. However, one cannot get rid of the feeling that gluing has been somehow »in the shadow« of this sport, especially in Slovenia. Why »in the shadow«? By saying this, I think that too little attention is paid to it because as regards the influence of adhesives and gluing on playing itself it should anyway deserve more attention.”